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  2. A History of the Church: To the Eve of the Reformation
  3. The Reformation Manifesto | nausnelamtverdul.gq
  4. Roman Catholicism and the Protestant Reformation

It was not a single act, nor was it led by one man. This history-altering movement played out on different stages over many decades. Its cumulative impact, however, was enormous. It marks the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times.

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Starting from religion, it gave, directly or indirectly, a mighty impulse to every forward movement, and made Protestantism the chief propelling force in the history of modern civilization. Under the guiding hand of God, the world scene had been uniquely prepared for the Reformation. The church was greatly in need of reform.

Spiritual darkness personified the Roman Catholic Church. The Bible was a closed book. Spiritual ignorance ruled the minds of the people. The gospel was perverted. Church tradition trumped divine truth. Personal holiness was abandoned. The rotten stench of manmade traditions covered pope and priest.

On the other hand, a new day was dawning. Feudal states were giving way to nation-states. Exploration was expanding. Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in Trade routes were opening. A middle class was rising. Opportunities for learning were increasing. Write letters. Change your religion. Have laws changed. But there were other people at Mass because they draw — or on that day needed — comfort in attending Mass.

No one person had the right to deprive them of whatever they derive from Mass. We should all stand up in the pews and speak. Letters to the nuncio are wasted paper. Prayers are misplaced energy as well. I sincerely hope there is a national commission, as there has been in Australia. If the civil authorities leave lay people to change this themselves, nothing will happen. We already know nothing will happen if we leave the church to reform itself. As a no-longer-practicing Catholic, I am glad to finally hear someone say this.

With a child in the second grade who would be making her first communion next year, there is absolutely no way I could look her in the eye 20 years from now and tell her that we had been willing to bring her up in an institution that for so many decades has facilitated the abuse and rape of children and has done so little to correct the problem. There is no justification.

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We work to bring a college education to woefully underprepared and often terribly poor students. The recent revelations from Pennsylvania detailing the decades of child rape make me sick, and I am glad that I have not given my allegiance to the church hierarchy, its dogmas and its sexual politics.

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Nevertheless, I am proud of the work I do with the Catholic Church. My point is simply that the church is big, and there are good things it is doing, despite the ugly criminals hiding behind the collar and their enablers in the hierarchy. Sadly, the church is just a big business. I left the church after the birth of my first grandson. I was raised in the faith and raised my son and daughter the same. They both attended parochial schools. My son served on the altar at the request of a local priest who was later identified as a predator. Thankfully, my boy was not a victim. The church will not change until the donations dry up.

Frankly, I no longer need an intermediary. Protest by withholding your money from financially supporting the church. Give instead to a local charity helping the poor. As long there are human clergy, there will be human problems. The believers could also depend on the internal witness of the Holy Spirit to lead him into all truth. This became the standard Protestant answer to the Catholic challenge, but a problem remained. How does one judge whether a particular believer is teaching what the Spirit is teaching?

By comparing Scripture with Scripture. Yes, of course, but both Catholics and Protestants compared Scripture with Scripture. Who judged which comparisons were correct or acceptable? Catholics and Protestants were at an impasse. Protestants insisted on the authority of the Bible alone and depended on the internal witness of the Spirit and textual comparisons to arrive at proper interpretations.

The Catholics insisted that as good as these reasons were, they still left open the question as to how to resolve doctrinal and moral disputes. God gave the hierarchical Church to resolve such issues.

Luther didn't like the fact people could buy indulgences — or reduced punishment after death

Catholics said that the Protestant method was a recipe for disaster because it allowed every person to follow his own lights, rather than be obedient to Scripture as interpreted by the Church. Martin Luther had no intention of leaving the Catholic Church. He wanted to reform its abuses, both in morals and in doctrine. But in the s, Luther and other Reformers began attacking some very central doctrines previously defined by the Church that led to some irreconcilable differences.

A History of the Church: To the Eve of the Reformation

Different interpretations of the Bible led to different churches. Still, the Protestants hoped to find some unity among their disparate movements. On several occasions, leaders of the Reformation tried to come together to agree on some fundamental tenets, but in the end they could not agree. Zwingli had already developed a symbolist interpretation of the Eucharist under the influence of a Dutch physician, Cornelis Hoen.

With this growing tension between the reform movements of various cities, some civil leaders wanted to find common ground. So Philip, the Landgrave of Hesse, called a colloquy for many of the Protestant leaders in his capital of Marburg.

The Reformation Manifesto | nausnelamtverdul.gq

In the first three days of October , Zwingli, Luther and several other theologians tried to reach agreement. And agreement they did reach on many doctrinal points. But they knew what anyone raised the Catholic culture of the sixteenth century knew, that the preeminent sacrament and rite of the Church was the Eucharist.

It did not matter what else they agreed on. If they could not agree on the Eucharist, they could not be united. This fact is incomprehensible to present-day Protestants because the Eucharist simply does not enjoy such an exalted place in their thinking.

But for Christians of early modern Europe, the Eucharist held the place of preeminence it had among the Fathers and medieval teachers of the Church. If that were true, what need would there be for faith in Christ as the Son of God.

Roman Catholicism and the Protestant Reformation

Luther and Zwingli wanted very badly to agree. Melanchthon warned Luther against agreeing too easily because agreement with Zwingli would mean no hope of reunion with the Catholics. So, on one day in early October, , the Protestant movement in German speaking lands lost any hope of mounting a united front against Rome. What happened in Marburg that October was repeated again and again in the Protestant movement. Philip Melanchthon tried several times to engage John Calvin in hopes that some unity between them might be found.

Luther and the Protestant Reformation: Crash Course World History #218